Weaving Pattern: Fully Loaded Scarf

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A perfect first project, this scarf is finished by being thrown into the washing machine, which masks any irregularities in the weaving such as messy edges or uneven beating. A hand-cut edging gives a fun finished look. This fabric can be used for all sorts of projects since
it can be cut without the possibility of fraying edges. Widen the warp to create a cloth large enough to cut out pieces for a simply shaped vest or hat. Keep in mind that about 30% of width and length will be lost during the fulling process.
Finished Dimensions
About 4" (11.5 cm) wide by 57" (146 cm) long, plus 2" (5 cm) fringe at each end.
This pattern is excerpted with permission from Weaving Made Easy Revised and Updated: 17 Projects Using a Rigid-Heddle Loom by Liz Gipson (Interweave/F+W; $24.99).

Step 1

Weave Structure
Balanced plain weave.
10-dent rigid heddle with 7" (18 cm) weaving width; one stick shuttle.
Warp and Weft
Sett (epi) 10.
Weaving Width
6" (17 cm).
Picks per Inch (ppi)
Warp Length
130" (330 cm; includes 30" [76 cm] for loom waste and take-up, and 10" [25.5 cm] for sampling).
Number of Warp Ends
Warp Color Order
Alternate 2 lime green with 2 purple variegated, end with
2 lime green.
2-ply sportweight wool (1,700 yd [1,554.5 m]/lb): 126 yd (115 m) lime green.
3-ply worsted-weight wool (1,000 yd [914.5 m]/lb): 115 yd (105 m) purple variegated.
Shown here: Brown Sheep Nature Spun Sport Weight
(100% wool; 184 yd [168 m]/50 g): #144 Limestone (lime green).
Universal Yarns Inc. Deluxe Worsted Magic: #903 purple
variegated (100% wool; 1,006 yd [920 yd]/lb): #903 purple variegated.
2-ply sportweight wool (1,700 yd [1,554.5 m]/lb):
200 yd (183 m) forest green (includes yardage for
Shown here: Brown Sheep Nature Spun Sport Weight
(100% wool; 184 yd [168 m]/50 g): #25 Enchanted Forest.
Warp the loom.

Step 2

Weave a few inches of header to spread the warp ends.
Weave with the forest green for at least 5" (12.5 cm) for a sample (you may try other colors of wool of the same brand) to test shrinkage later. Wools tend to shrink differently, and you will use this sample to test the amount of washing it will take to get the degree of fulling that you want once the cloth is fulled there is no going back!
Leave 3" (7.5 cm) of unwoven warp between the end of the sample and the beginning of the scarf. Weave 90" (229 cm) with forest green.

Step 3

Remove the fabric from the loom by untying the warp from the apron rods. Remove the scrap yarn in the header. With sharp scissors, cut the sample section from the scarf.

Step 4

Full the sample to the desired thickness, then full the scarf to match (expect about 30% to be lost in width and length). Allow the fabric to thoroughly air-dry. Trim the loose threads from each end of the scarf.
Note: The terms fulling and felting are often used interchangeably, although they refer to slightly different techniques. Felting is the process of agitating unspun protein fibers, such as wool, with needles or water to fuse the fibers together into a solid fabric. Fulling is the same process as felting, permanently interlocking microscopic barbs on protein fibers with agitation, but it is applied to wool yarn that has already been woven, knitted, or crocheted.
Fulling typically results in a fabric with more drape, while felting produces a sturdier, denser fabric. However, heavily fulled cloth can become very dense and felt-like, often resulting in fabric that can be cut without fraying. Either one causes the fabric to shrink both in width and length. The amount of shrinkage will vary with the yarn, water temperature, and amount of agitation.
Try combining yarns that full (wool and alpaca, for example) with yarns that donít (cotton, linen, rayon, and synthetics, for example). Called differential shrinkage, this can cause wonderful bumps and textures in woven fabric.

Fulling Woven Fabric
You can full fabric by hand, but it takes a long time! It is much easier to use a washing machine if you monitor the process carefully. If your machine doesn't have an agitator, add a dense, heavy object such as a washable shoe to create agitation. Because all washing machines are a little different, you'll want to use a sample to test the amount of shrinkage before you full your entire project. Measure your sample before and after it goes through the washing machine to determine how much length and width will be lost by fulling. For a lightly fulled fabric, set the machine on the delicate cycle (which has limited agitation) and warm water on a low water level. Let the machine fill with water, then add a couple of teaspoons of delicate washing soap along with the sample. Let the agitator run for a minute, then check the cloth to see how much fulling has occurred. If you're satisfied with the degree of fulling, remove the fabric from the machine, otherwise let it continue to agitate, checking the progress every minute or so. If the desired amount of fulling occurs before the rinse cycle begins, gently hand-rinse the fabric to remove the soap
without causing further felting. Roll the sample in a towel to remove excess moisture, then lay it flat.

Decide if your sample fulled more or less than you want in the finished project. If you want your project to be less fulled, remove it from the washing machine sooner. If you want it more fulled, let it agitate longer. While it's possible to repeat the process to make the fabric denser, there's no going back to undo fulling that has already occurred.
You can also full your fabric by hand. Simply fill a basin (or your bathtub if your project is large) with lukewarm water. Add soap and the fabric, then agitate the project vigorously with your hands until you have the level of fullness you desire. This can take anywhere from a few minutes to upward of an hour! Rinse the fabric to rid it of any soap, then roll it in a towel to remove water, and lay it flat to air-dry.

Step 5

Using sharp scissors, cut fifteen slits at each end of the scarf, each about 2" (5 cm) long and about 6 mm apart to form fringe.

Step 6

This pattern is excerpted with permission from Weaving Made Easy Revised and Updated: 17 Projects Using a Rigid-Heddle Loom by Liz Gipson (Interweave/F+W; $24.99).

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